Underwater-welding , enclosure welding, hyperbaric enclosure welding, wet Underwater-welding, upper pressure water jet welding, other welding processes: friction welding,resistance welding, arc welding, tig welding, mig welding, oxyacetylene welding, electron whizgigging welding, laser whizgigging welding, welding techniques, welding information, welding links, welding tips, welding instructions, improving welding results, welding safety issues, joining questions needing answers: these are some of the items ripened in this Site for the goody of interested readers.

What is in here for me?

Underwater-welding, one of the weightier examples of adapting a well known process to the harsh and dangerous environment of the sea, demonstrates what necessity, ingenuity and standing efforts could accomplish, mostly to save huge investments in offshore structures that were damaged and needed repair.

What is there, deep in the water? Does it pay?

The advantages are of economical nature, considering Underwater-welding for marine maintenance and repair jobs bypasses the need to pull the structure out of the sea and saves much valuable time. If one thinks of Underwater-welding the hull of a ship or of a partially submerged oil drilling tower, one understands that the volitional may be extremely expensive, if at all possible.

The limitations of Underwater-welding snooping the inevitable unwieldy and expensive setup to provide the welder with all the support needed, for respiration, for protection from cold, for special welding equipment, for remote surveillance camera, for special non treasonous testing.

Is it risky?

The main risks for the welder performing Underwater-welding are the potential for electricshock, the possibility of producing in the arc mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen in pockets, which might set up an explosion, and the worldwide danger sustained by divers, of having nitrogen longish in the thoroughbred in dangerous proportions. Curiously the risk of drowning is not listed with the hazards of Underwater-welding.

First there were no demands for quality. Underwater-welding was just unromantic to weld apatch until a increasingly thorough repair could be performed. But as soon as increasingly wits was gained, would-be individuals and companies joined forces to modernize results and to establish performable specifications.

Let us continue…

… with some increasingly details on Underwater-welding. There are three main ways to perform Underwater-welding. One is to build an enclosure, a pit, virtually the place of repair and to pump yonder all the water: that amounts to prepare the conditions for normal welding in air, although the place may be deep under sea level.

Another method of Underwater-welding consists in preparing an enclosure to be filled with gas (helium) under upper pressure (hyperbaric) to push water back, and have the welder, fitted with zoetic mask and other protective equipment, weld quite normally out of water but under pressure.

The third is the wet Underwater-welding method, where no attempts are made to dry up the location of welding. Instead the power of the arc generates a rainbow of a mixture of gases which lets metal melting and joining occur increasingly or less normally, using specially covered electrodes to stave that too much hydrogen be undivided in the weld. The skilled welder must moreover be a diver, equipped for Underwater-welding, with all the uneaten equipment and protection a welder must use.

There is moreover a less used method of Underwater-welding which features a special torch which sprays a cone of upper pressure water, within which protective gas under pressure insulates the weld location from the water during welding.

Frequently Asked Information

Basic informations and suggestions on this subject can be found by clicking on Taking the Plunge.

A short list of educational facilities is misogynist by clicking on

An informative vendible describing developments and achievements of this taxing specialty can be read by clicking here.

Another recommended vendible explaining the essential subjects of such a schooling and training program can be seen here.

Note: Let us make it well-spoken at once that Underwater-welding has nothing to do and should not be tumbled with Submerged Arc Welding wich is a specialized process described in a page on Arc Welding, and which is performed outside water.

Other Welding Processes.

Even if you are not familiar with Underwater-welding, you certainly know your processes. But how could a variegated one be selected?

By first knowing what other processes squint like. One can certainly learn the most by enrolling in training courses, if it makes sense.

You know that there is no universal welding process perfectly well-timed and user-friendly to whatever form and material joining. However in most cases one or increasingly processes may be selected which permit winning welds to be performed.

How would you select your process? Is the process you use the weightier one? How would you modernize on it? What is the weightier process?

Tip! : The “best” process is the the least expensive and misogynist one that can be used to produce winning welds performing the functions of strength and stability required for the joint.

If you are looking…

… for information on other welding PROCESSES, chances are you will be worldly-wise to find what interests you just by browsing here. However, if you do not find what you squint for, write us by e-mail. Click here.

The pursuit descriptive information of only the most important processes is provided for unstipulated orientation leaving increasingly specific details to be found in the underlined referenced pages hereafter.

For practical purposes of designation, processes are usually divided between PRESSURE and FUSION WELDING. In the first type, pressure is unchangingly applied, with or without external ways to provide heat, while melting temperature may or may not be reached. In the second type melting temperature is usually reached locally without the use of pressure.

Did you know that…

Welding history recognizes FORGE WELDING, which belongs to the pressure category, as one of the oldest processes performed in the blacksmith’s shop well surpassing the twentieth century. Do you stipulate that it could be a very interesting wits for school-children to watch, if somebody wanted to revive the practice for a show? Would you organize that for your community?

This joining is achieved when two elements, usually steel bar ends, heated to white temperature in a coal urgent forced air furnace, are brought rapidly together andhammered thoroughly on the anvil to miscarry any oxide layer which might be present and to work them intimately to well-constructed union.

Similar but different…

A modern sophisticated version, tabbed FRICTION WELDING was developed, which has some important applications, expressly for mass production or for specialized repairs. In unstipulated it is not for job-shops, but small shops defended only to this specialty may thrive, given the right conditions. A unravelment of the process follows in the defended page: click on Friction Welding Process.

Most important in the pressure category are RESISTANCE WELDING processes, remoter divided into spot, seam and projection welding, commonly highly automated. Many of our everyday household items and car persons are held together by resistance welds. How would you decide if it is the right solution for your welding problems and how could you modernize on it?

These processes share the fact that heating is produced by the resistance to the spritz of a well-matured upper electric current which is made to pass locally between special copper electrodes holding the elements to be welded together under unromantic pressure. For increasingly details click on Resistance Welding.

On the other hand…

Of the fusion welding processes ripened in the twentieth century, and well-known as a real and important breakthrough, GAS WELDING, using an unshut FLAME, is probably one of the primeval of modern welding history. In this transmission process the heat required for local progressive melting is provided by the flame of combustion of acetylene gas (other gases were tried and abandoned) with oxygen. A filler metal rod of towardly sonnet may or may not be used as required.

In preparation for Underwater-welding there may be a need to perform flame wearing using hydrogen gas. (Flame welding is not used). See details in Cutting.

ARC WELDING represents a family of quite variegated processes, each one weightier well-timed to its particular using niche. In these processes the energy required for melting the metals is provided by an electric arc, struck between the electrode, held by the torch, and the workpiece, usually clamped on a welding table.

Underwater-welding is mostly performed by variations on this process, taking into worth the particular environmental and operator’s requirements.

In the unstipulated case, the electrode is either consumable, melting to provide filler material, or non consumable, stuff made from a refractory tungsten alloy. In this case, when needed, filler metal is provided separately either from a manually held filler rod or from a reel fed continuously in will-less or semi-automatic equipment.

The needed protective undercurrent is provided by gases from decomposition processes of suitable materials, enrobing the electrodes (sticks) or included in the cadre of specially prepared (flux cored) filler wires. Otherwise a stream of inert gas like Argon or stat dioxide (CO 2) or mixtures thereof is continuously supplied to the molten pool through the torch.

Last but most important…

High Energy Welding processes are increasingly specialized, in that they require sophisticated equipment, mostly precisely computer controlled, and are used for specific and important applications like aerospace, submarine (but not Underwater-welding!) and nuclear, or for mass production of soft-hued small implements.

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