Scaffolding is defined as any structure, framework, swinging stage, suspended scaffolding, or boatswain’s chair, of a temporary nature, used or intended to be used for the support or protection of workers engaged in or in connection with construction work, for the purpose of carrying out that work or for the support of materials used in connection with any such work; and includes any scaffolding constructed as such and not dismantled, whether or not it is being used as scaffolding; and also includes any plank, coupling, fastening, fitting or device used in connection with the construction, erection, or use of scaffolding.
Scaffolding process is defined as the planning for, the design of, the erection of, the inspection of, the use of, and the dismantling of any scaffolding. The scaffolding process does not include the erection of structures constructed using scaffolding components, such as falsework, temporary grandstands, lighting towers, etc.
Notwithstanding the above definitions, those planning or constructing
temporary grandstands, falsework, lighting towers, etc., may find some of the information in this code useful and relevant.
The different type of scaffolding that is used in construction is briefly explained below:
1. Trestle Scaffolding
The working platform is supported on movable ladders or tripods in trestle scaffolding. It is used up to a height of 5m and is normally used for work inside the room like repairs, paintings and likewise.
2. Steel Scaffolding
Steel scaffolding is made from steel tubes that are set jointly by steel fittings or couplers. It is simple to erect and to dismantle. It has better robustness, greater durability and superior fire resistance. Though it is not affordable cost wise, it provides greater safety for workers. That’s the precise reason it is used so widely these days.
3. Patented Scaffolding
Patented scaffoldings are also made from steel; however, they are fitted with special couplings and frames etc. These are readymade scaffoldings that are obtainable on the market. Working platform is set on the brackets that are adjustable to the required level in this type of scaffolding.
4. Suspended Scaffolding
Suspended scaffolding is mainly used for paintings, repair works, etc. Here, with the assistance of chains or wire ropes etc., the working platform is suspended from roofs. It can be lifted or lowered to the desired level.
5. Cantilever Scaffolding
In cantilever scaffolding, the standards are supported by a chain of needles and these needles are pulled out via holes in the wall. This is known as “single frame” scaffolding-type. In another type, needles are supported inside the floors via the openings and this is called independent or double frame scaffolding type. When constructing cantilever scaffolding, good care should be taken. Normally, under below mentioned conditions, cantilever scaffolding is used.
- When the upper part of the wall is under construction
- When ground is close to the wall and is free from traffic
- When the ground is not capable of supporting standards
6. Single Scaffolding
Single scaffolding is usually used for brick masonry and so it is also known as brick layer’s scaffolding. Single scaffolding comprises of standards, putlogs, ledgers etc., which corresponds to the wall at a distance of around 1.2 m. Distance amongst the standards is around 2 to 2.5 m. Ledgers join the standards at an upright gap of 1.2 to 1.5 m. Putlogs are extracted from the gap remaining in the wall to one end of the ledgers. Putlogs are positioned at a gap of 1.2 to 1.5 m.
7. Double Scaffolding
Double Scaffolding is normally used for stone masonry job, therefore, it is also known as mason’s scaffolding. It is also known as the independent scaffolding. Typically, in stone walls, it is tough to make holes in the wall for supporting putlogs; thus, two scaffolding rows are made to make it robust. Basically, the first row is about 20 to 30 cm away from the wall, and another one is 1m away from the first row. Then after putlogs are positioned that are supported by both the frames. In order to make it sturdier, cross braces and rakers are supplied.
8. Kwikstage Scaffolding
The Kwikstage system is manufactured from hard wearing galvanised steel. Kwikstage scaffolding system is effortless to assemble and erect and simple to take down. For builders working on big or small projects, this scaffolding system is very helpful. Wherever regular scaffold is used, Kwikstage scaffolding can also be used as an alternative. Using a strong and safe interlocking system, the patented Kwikstage modular system can be built to any height.